Cook County

Illinois Victims of the State

53 Cases

State Menu


Jump to:   1928   1969   1977   1979   1982   1985   1987   1992   1997




Date of Alleged Crime


Cook County, IL Haymarket Eight May 4, 1886

Eight men were convicted of murder and conspiracy to commit murder in connection with the death of police officer Matthew J. Deegan.  On May 1, 1886 there were general strikes throughout the United States in support of an 8-hour workday.  On May 3 there was a rally of striking workers at the McCormick Harvesting Machine Company plant in Chicago.  This rally ended with police firing on the workers.  Two workers died although some newspaper accounts reported six fatalities.

Read More by Clicking Here


Cook County, IL Michael J. Synon Feb 26, 1900
Michael J. Synon was sentenced to death for the of murder of his wife.  She was beaten to death in their Chicago residence at 240 S. Green St.  Synon's ten-year-old son testified against him.  In 1901, it was proven that Synon was four miles away from the scene of his wife's murder and he was released.  [7/05]


Cook County, IL Joseph Briggs Sept 12, 1904
Joseph Briggs was sentenced to death for the murder of wholesale cigar dealer Hans Peterson.  The murder occurred during an armed robbery of Peterson's shop at 774 West Lake Street in Chicago.  Two eyewitnesses, who failed to identify Briggs initially, identified him as the perpetrator in court.  A third witness identified him a having been to the store the day before.  This witness identified him at a police station, but only after asking a desk sergeant, “Which one is Briggs?”  At trial, Briggs had several witnesses who testified that he had been in a saloon at the time the prosecution contended the crime occurred.  In Dec. 1905, the Illinois Supreme Court overturned Briggs' conviction because the trial court refused to allow evidence that impeached the credibility of the prosecution witnesses.  On retrial, Briggs was acquitted.  (CWC)  [12/05]


Cook County, IL Earnest Wallace June 17, 1916 (Chicago)

Earnest Wallace was sentenced to death for the shooting murders of two men that occurred during the robbery of a saloon on the southwest corner of Twenty-Seventh and Federal streets in Chicago.  The victims were the proprietor, William Levin, and a customer, William Monroe.  Wallace was convicted of the murders due to the eyewitness testimony of John Porter, Henry Flynn, and Martha Clark.

Porter was the only identifying witness who testified he was in the saloon at the time of the shooting.  He first identified Wallace on the street while he [Porter] was in the custody of the police.  Although the other saloon patrons lived in the neighborhood, Porter did not and claimed he was a first time visitor.  The other patrons said the assailant was masked, but Porter testified the assailant was unmasked.  At trial Porter was unable to recognize any of the other patrons as being present in the saloon at the time of the shooting.  Porter also could not give an intelligible account of his actions or whereabouts after leaving the saloon.

The other two identifying witnesses gave testimony that was unlikely, and even if true, only identified Wallace as being in or near the saloon around the time of the shooting.  Wallace testified that he was playing craps at a pool room on State Street at the time of the shooting and he had three other players corroborate his account of how he spent the evening of the shootings.  Two years after Wallace's conviction, the Illinois Supreme Court vacated it on the grounds that the evidence against him was insufficient to convict.  (People v. Wallace)  [12/08]


Cook County, IL Mary Berner 1928 (Cicero)
Mary Berner was convicted of forgery.  Eight bank and department store employees identified Berner as the woman who had cashed bad checks at their facilities.  After the actual forger was arrested and confessed, the same people who had identified Berner identified this woman as the forger.  [7/05]


Cook County, IL Majczek & Marcinkiewicz Dec 9, 1932

Joseph Majczek and Theodore Marcinkiewicz were convicted in 1933 of murdering Chicago police officer William D. Lundy.  The case came to the attention of a Chicago Times reporter in 1944 after Majczek's mother placed a classified ad offering a $5,000 reward for information on Lundy's killers.  The Times did a front-page human-interest story on how the mother scrubbed floors on her hands and knees six nights a week for over a decade to raise the money.

A Times researcher got a statement from Joseph Majczek that said his trial judge met privately with him and promised him a new trial.  Normally the researcher would dismiss as preposterous a claim that a judge would host a private conversation with a convicted cop-killer, but the story reporter wondered aloud to him why Majczek was not sent to the electric chair, the usual sentence for a cop-killer.  Further research produced a compelling case for innocence.  The judge had not carried through on his promise because prosecutors had threatened him that granting new trials would end his career in politics.

The Times crusaded for Majczek's exoneration and he was pardoned in 1945.  Marcinkiewicz was seemingly forgotten, but in 1950, he was legally exonerated through a state habeas corpus proceeding.  The legislature later awarded $24,000 to Majczek and $35,000 to Marcinkiewicz.  Chapter 1 of Not Guilty covers the case in more detail including why the two were convicted.  The case was the subject of the movie Call Northside 777 (1948) starring Jimmy Stewart.  (CWC)  [12/05]


Cook County, IL Fowler & Pugh Sept 5, 1936
Walter Fowler and Heywood Pugh (aka Earl Howard Pugh) were convicted in 1937 of the murder of William J. Haag, a Railway Express Agency driver.  Haag was stabbed to death on South State Street in Chicago during an apparent robbery.  At trial both men testified that their confessions to the crime were beaten out of them.  Fowler was sentenced to 99 years in prison and Pugh was sentenced to life imprisonment.  Fowler died in 1948.  In 1953, the police detective, George Miller, who had obtained Fowler's and Pugh's confessions, inadvertently allowed an attorney working for Pugh to see a manila folder containing statements from two eyewitnesses to Haag's murder.  These eyewitnesses identified another man, Eddie Leison, as Haag's killer.  Because of this evidence, Pugh was exonerated and released.  In 1955, the Illinois legislature awarded Pugh $51,000 for his wrongful imprisonment.  (CWC)  [9/07]


Cook County, IL Bill Heirens June 1945 - Jan 1946
Bill Heirens, a 17-year-old University of Chicago student, pleaded guilty to three separate murders in exchange for three life sentences when it became apparent that he would not get a fair trial and could be executed within weeks.  The victims were two adult women, and 6-year-old Suzanne Degnan, who was found dismembered.  Heirens was a thief who was caught burglarizing a home in the neighborhood of the murders months after they occurred.  No Miranda rights or appeals process then existed.  Heirens withstood being tortured by police and said he could have withstood more, but he succumbed after the Chicago Tribune published a false story that gave a purported confession by Heirens.  Heirens and his lawyers felt that that story, which was picked up by other newspapers, would hopelessly taint any jury pool.  Heirens is still imprisoned after 63 years at age 80 in 2009.  Two books were written about the case, the pro-prosecution, Before I Kill More..., and the pro-defense, William Heirens: His Day in Court.  (Life) (American Justice) (Video) (Crime Library) (JD10) ( (CNN)  [10/07]


Cook County, IL George Letterich Dec 17, 1948 (McCook)
George Letterich was sentenced to death in 1950 for the murder of a 10-year-old girl.  He signed two confessions after 60 hours of questioning by Lyons, McCook, and Chicago police.  Letterich said one officer threatened that “he would knock my head through the wall and go on the other side and make mincemeat out of it.”  Letterich's confession did not agree with many of the known facts of the case.  In addition, another man confessed to the crime, a confession that authorities ignored and suppressed at Letterich's trial.  Letterich's conviction was overturned in 1952, and prosecutors dropped charges in 1953.  (CWC)  [1/06]


Cook County, IL Kenneth Hansen Oct 17, 1955

Kenneth Hansen was charged in 1994 with the famous unsolved murders of three 11 to 13 year old boys that occurred in 1955.  The victims were John and Tony Schuessler and their friend Robert Peterson.  They had traveled downtown to attend a matinee at a Loop theater and were found dead two days later in Robinson's Woods, outside of Chicago.

Hansen was on his honeymoon in Texas at the time of the murders, but he found his 40-year-old alibi impossible to confirm.  Four witnesses claimed he confessed to them separately and alone in 1955, 1964, 1968, and 1976.  There was no other evidence.  Three witnesses were paid informants.  Hansen was convicted and sentenced to 200 to 300 years of imprisonment.

After the trial, the fourth witness admitted his testimony was fabricated.  None of the witnesses mentioned the confessions to anyone before 1993.  In addition, after the trial, a woman came forward and claimed her dead husband, Silas Jayne, confessed to her to performing the murders in 1956.  She left her husband the next day.  Other witnesses and some physical evidence corroborated her story.  Despite there being no evidence that the boys were molested, the trial judge allowed evidence of Hansen's homosexuality and deviate lifestyle to be presented.  The 2002 retrial with new evidence and the widow witness also resulted in conviction.  Hansen died in prison in 2007.  (TruthInJustice)


Cook County, IL Sammie Garrett Nov 9, 1969
Sammie Garrett, a black man, was convicted of murdering his 28-year-old white girlfriend, Karen Thompson.  Thompson had been in a “highly emotional state” and left a purported suicide note.  Two police officers testified at Garrett's trial that, given the length of the shotgun and the location of the wound, it would have been impossible for Thompson to have shot herself.  Since there was only one bullet hole on the exterior of her head, they assumed it was an entrance wound.  However, five years later Thompson's remains were reexamined and the examination disclosed an entrance wound in the roof of her mouth that the original pathologist had overlooked.  The Illinois Supreme Court overturned Garrett's conviction in 1975 and the State's Attorney dropped charges.  (CWC)  [1/06]


Cook County, IL House of Torture Victims 1973 - 1993

Lt. Jon Burge and his fellow detectives at the Area 2 & 3 Police Station on the Southside of Chicago tortured at least 60 persons between 1973 and 1993.  The types of tortures used included Russian roulette, cigarette burns, electrical shocks, suffocation, radiators, telephone books, sticks, beatings, cattle prods, and threats.  It took the specific case of Andrew Wilson in 1982 to finally bring the truth to light.  Jon Burge and his detectives had gone overboard by leaving obvious signs of bruises all over Andrew Wilson's body.  An OPS investigation led to the Goldston Report, which stated and confirmed a systematic pattern of torture and abuse by detectives under the supervision of Jon Burge.  In 1993, Burge was allegedly fired and two detectives were suspended.  However, Burge receives his full pension and benefits.

Those tortured include the Death Row 10:  Madison Hobley, Leonard Kidd, Aaron Patterson, Andrew Maxwell, Stanley Howard, Derrick King, Ronald Kitchen, Reginald McHaffey, Leroy Orange, and Jerry McHaffey.  Frank Bounds is an 11th death row inmate tortured but he is now deceased.  Gov. Ryan has pardoned four of the Death Row 10.  (CCADP)  [9/05]


Cook County, IL Lloyd Lindsey Oct 21, 1974

Lloyd Lindsey was convicted of murdering three little girls and their brother.  He was also convicted of raping one of the girls.  A man who boarded with the children's family and a surviving brother told police when interviewed together that Lindsey along with Eugene Ford and Willie Robinson had strangled the children after raping the girls.  The three men then set fire to the home.  Lindsey confessed to this crime, parroting the details of the boarder and surviving brother.  The home, at 1408 W. 61st Street in Chicago, was occupied by Mrs. Catherine Horace, her six children, and Lavelle Watkins, the boarder.

Medical evidence indicated that the children had not been strangled, but had died of smoke inhalation.  Two of the girls, moreover, were virgins and showed no signs of sexual abuse.  Lindsey and his compatriots, who had not confessed, were tried together, but with separate juries.  Lindsey was convicted, but his compatriots were acquitted.  In 1979, the Illinois Appellate Court reversed Lindsey's conviction, and barred a retrial.  It ruled “the inconsistencies in the testimony of [the principal prosecution witnesses] were not only contradictory but diluted [their testimony] to the level of palpable improbability and incredulity.”  (CWC)  [1/06]


Cook County, IL Evans & Terry Jan 14, 1976 (South Side)

Michael Evans and Paul Terry were convicted of the rape and murder of 9-year-old Lisa Cabassa.  No physical evidence was ever found to tie them to the crime.  A neighbor of Cabassa, Judith Januszewski, testified against the two, although by her own admission, she repeatedly lied to police and did not give them a full account of what she said she witnessed until six weeks after the victim's body had been found.  She did not come forward until after reward money was offered.

According to her family, Lisa left home with her 12-year-old brother at 6:30 p.m. to walk to the home of a friend a few blocks away.  On the way, Lisa complained of a headache and turned to walk back home.  She never made it home and apparently was abducted on the way.  Januszewski initially stated that she saw two youths, she later identified as Evans and Terry, struggle with a girl around 6:37 p.m.  By the time of trial, the prosecution had to disclose Januszewski's work timecard, which showed she worked to 8 p.m., so at trial they asserted the abduction occurred after 8 p.m..  Evans and Terry were each sentenced to 400 to 800 years of imprisonment, but because sentencing for different charges ran concurrently, they only had to serve 200 to 400 years.  DNA tests exonerated Evans and Terry in 2003.  They had served 27 years of imprisonment, more time than any previous Americans exonerated by DNA.  (Chicago Tribune) (CWC) (IP1) (IP2)  [12/05]


Cook County, IL Gary Dotson July 9, 1977 (Homewood)

Sixteen-year-old Cathleen Crowell feared she had become pregnant after having consensual sex with her boyfriend and made a rape allegation as a plausible explanation to tell her parents.  It had not occurred to her that police would pursue her case.  Police made her make a composite sketch, and Crowell says they pressured her to pick Gary Dotson from a mug book, pointing out how much he resembled the sketch.  Dotson was arrested even though he then had a mustache that he could not have grown in the five days since the alleged incident.

At trial in July 1979, Crowell identified Dotson as her assailant.  The state's forensic analyst, Timothy Dixon, also testified that tests on the semen sample recovered from Crowell showed the alleged assailant had a “B” blood type which was shared by only 11% of the population including Dotson.  This testimony was false and misleading because Dixon did not volunteer that Crowell also had a “B” blood type and her fluids mixed in with the sample.  Thus the sample would have tested positive for the “B” blood type regardless of the blood type of the semen donor.  Dotson had four of his friends give alibi testimony, but the prosecutor branded them as “liars.”  Dotson was convicted.

Crowell subsequently married and moved to New Hampshire where she became a born-again Christian.  In early 1985, she told her pastor that she was riddled with guilt because she had sent an innocent man to prison.  On her behalf, the pastor contacted a Wisconsin lawyer who tried to resolve the matter, but prosecutors were unresponsive.  However, news about the recantation soon appeared in the Chicago Sun Times, taking up most of the front page.  Illinois Governor Thompson said he did not believe Crowell's recantation and an appeals court would not overturn the conviction.

The public supported Dotson and Thompson tried to assume a middle ground by paroling Dotson.  However, Dotson's parole was revoked two years later when his wife accused him of assault.  On Christmas Eve, 1987, Thompson granted Dotson another “last chance” parole, but it was revoked two days later when Dotson was arrested in a barroom fight.  In 1988, Dotson had DNA tests performed, which exonerated him.  He got his conviction overturned on Aug. 14, 1989 and the prosecution declined to retry him.  Many later reports on DNA testing listed Dotson as the first convicted person in the U.S. and the world to be exonerated by DNA evidence.  However, priority to judicial exoneration goes to David Vasquez of Virginia who was exonerated and released on Jan. 4, 1989.  Unlike Dotson's, Vasquez's case was little reported.  (CWC) (IP) (CBJ) (American Justice) (TWM) [12/05]


Cook County, IL Cobb & Tillis Nov 13, 1977 (North Side)

Perry Cobb and Darby Tillis (aka Darby Williams) were sentenced to death for the murders of Melvin Kanter and Charles Gucciona.  The murders occurred during a robbery of the victims' hot dog stand.  The prosecution's key witness was a woman named Phyllis Santini, who claimed that she had driven the getaway car for the two men.  The defense argued that Santini and her boyfriend, Johnny Brown, had committed the crimes, and that she was framing Cobb and Tillis.  The first trial ended in a hung jury, as did a second trial.

At the third trial, a witness who had earlier testified that he could not identify the defendants as the men he saw, suddenly changed his story and now claimed that he saw Cobb and Tillis enter the store.  This third trial in 1979 ended in convictions and death sentences.  Judge Thomas J. Maloney presided over the three trials and has since been convicted of taking bribes to fix murder cases.  He was accused of being tough on defendants like Cobb and Tillis who did not offer bribes.  Maloney refused to allow two defense witnesses to testify.  The two claimed Santini had admitted committing the murders with Brown.  The two also said she expected a reward for her testimony against Cobb and Tillis.  (She was in fact paid $1200.)  The Illinois Supreme Court reversed the convictions based on limitations that were put on the defense's ability to argue that Santini and her boyfriend were the true culprits.

While the parties were preparing for a fourth trial, Michael Falconer, a recent law school graduate, happened to read an account of the case in Chicago Lawyer.  Falconer recognized Santini's name because he had worked with her in a factory before going to law school.  At that time, Santini had confided in him that she and her boyfriend had committed a double homicide and that she was working with prosecutors in return for a deal that would keep her from being charged.  Falconer, who had then become a Lake County prosecutor, testified about this conversation at the fourth trial, which again ended in a hung jury.  Finally, at a fifth trial in 1987, both Cobb and Tillis were acquitted of all charges.  (CWC1) (CWC2) (Profiles of Injustice) (PC)  [12/06]


Cook County, IL Ford Heights Four May 11, 1978

Kenneth Adams, Dennis Williams, Willie Rainge, and Verneal Jimerson were convicted of gang raping and murdering 23-year-old Carol Schmal and murdering her fiancé, Larry Lionberg.  The crimes occurred in the town of Chicago Heights which was subsequently renamed Ford Heights.  The four, who later became known as the Ford Heights Four, were sentenced to 75 years, death, life without parole, and death respectively.

Years later, Northwestern University journalism students investigated the case.  They uncovered a police file showing that, within a week of the crime, a witness had told the police that they had arrested the wrong men.  The witness said he knew who committed the crime because he heard shots, saw four men run away from the scene, and the next day saw them selling items taken from the robbery of the victims.  One of the men identified by that witness was by then dead, but the other three ultimately confessed.  Then the results of the DNA testing established the innocence of the Ford Heights Four and implicated the three who had confessed.  The four were pardoned and released in 1996.  In 1999, the four were awarded $36 million in damages.  Their case was the subject of a 1998 book entitled A Promise of Justice.

At a retrial in 1987, prosecutor Scott Arthur used blind belief in the police to counter defense arguments.  “Maybe the police made up all this evidence … That's too far-fetched.  If your find the defendants innocent, don't do it because [of a specific defense argument.]  Do it because you believe the police framed these men—because that's what you would have to believe now.”  In 1997, following a federal investigation into Ford Heights police corruption, Chief Jack Davis and five other officers—more than half the town's police department—were convicted of extorting bribes from drug dealers and abetting them in their distribution of heroin and crack.  Some of the real killers of Schmal and Lionberg were drug dealers and the police department protected them by charging and convicting four innocents of the murders.  (CWC1) (CWC2) (CWC3) (CWC4) (IP1) (IP2) (IP3) (IP4)  [1/06]


Cook County, IL Paula Gray May 11, 1978
Paula Gray was a fifth defendant in Ford Heights Four case.  She was Kenneth Adams girlfriend.  After being questioned for two nights, Gray, 17, and borderline mentally retarded, agreed to testify against the Four, which she did before a Grand Jury.  She soon recanted her testimony and was charged with the murders and with perjury.  Through the discovery process in the Ford Heights Four civil damages lawsuit, it became apparent that Gray's testimony had been coerced.  (CWC) (IP)  [7/05]


Cook County, IL James Newsome Oct 30, 1979
James Newsome was convicted of the murder of Edward “Mickey” Cohen, 72, during a robbery of Cohen's grocery store.  The store was located at 8911 S. Loomis St. in Chicago.  After two eyewitnesses had picked photographs of someone else out of a mug book, police put Newsome into a lineup.  He was then informed that he had been identified.  Newsome was tried and convicted of murder and armed robbery based on these witnesses and a third eyewitness.  In 1989, Newsome obtained a court order requiring the Chicago Police Department to run unidentified fingerprints from the murder scene through the Automated Fingerprint Identification System.  The check was run, and the officer in charge falsely reported that the search found no prints matching anyone else.  It was not until five years later that police admitted that prints were found to match those of Dennis Emerson, who by then was on death row for another murder.  Newsome was freed in 1994 and Gov. Edgar granted him a pardon based on innocence in 1995.  In 2003, Newsome was awarded $15 million for 15 years of wrongful incarceration.  (CWC)  [6/05]


Cook County, IL Steven Linscott Oct. 4, 1980 (Oak Park)
When questioned by police about the murder of neighbor, Karen Ann Phillips, Steven Linscott told them of a violent dream he had the night of the murder.  The dream allegedly had details consistent with the murder, and his statement to police was regarded as a confession and used to convict him.  In 1992, DNA tests exonerated Linscott.  In 2002, Gov. Ryan granted him a pardon based on innocence.  (IP) (CWC) (CBJ)  [12/05]


Cook County, IL Beringer Brothers July 16, 1981

After Joanne Barkauskas was gunned down on her way to work, an eyewitness, Harvey Webb, identified the murderer as James Galason.  The murder occurred near 42nd and Artesian in Chicago.  Galason confessed and testified that the victim's husband, Edward Barkauskas, had contracted with him to commit the crime for a share of her life insurance proceeds.  In exchange for leniency, however, Galason agreed to implicate the Beringer brothers in the crime.  Galason claimed that Joseph Beringer had been the actual shooter, and that Kenneth Beringer had helped steal a car used in the crime and had been present when the crime was carried out.

There was not much of a case against the Beringers as the eyewitness claimed that Galason alone had committed the murder and the victim's husband, who admitted meeting with Galason, testified that he never met either of the Beringers.  Nevertheless, the Beringers were convicted.  The Illinois Appellate Court overturned Joseph Beringer's conviction in 1987 because of “brazen misconduct” by the prosecutor, Kenneth Wadas, at trial.  Five months later, a court overturned Kenneth Beringer's conviction on the same grounds, and the prosecution dropped all charges against the brothers.  (CWC)  [12/05]


Cook County, IL Jerry Miller Sept 16, 1981
Jerry Miller was convicted of raping a 44-year-old woman.  Miller had been stopped by a police officer a few days before the assault for allegedly “looking” into parked cars.  After a composite sketch of the rapist was drawn using two eyewitnesses, the sketch was circulated and the officer who stopped Miller thought the sketch resembled him.  Miller was brought in for a lineup and the witnesses identified him.  At trial, the judge said the evidence against Miller was “overwhelming.”  Miller was released from prison in 2006.  DNA tests exonerated him in 2007 and identified the actual perpetrator.  According to the Innocence Project, Miller is the 200th American exonerated by DNA testing.  (Chicago Tribune) (IP)  [6/07]


Cook County, IL Milwaukee Ave. Innocents Nov 27, 1981
Rogelio Arroyo, Isauro Sanchez, Ignacio Varela, and Joaquin Varela were four members of the Varela family who were convicted of the shooting deaths of four members of the Sanchez family and the non-fatal shootings of two others in what became known as the Milwaukee Avenue Massacre.  The shootings occurred at 2121 N. Milwaukee Ave.  The families, both with roots in Guerrero, Mexico, had been engaged in a feud for six years.  In 1990, the real killer, Gilberto Varela confessed to the crime in a collect call from Mexico.  He and three others involved in the crime had fled to Mexico immediately after the killings.  Illinois Governor Thompson commuted the convicted men's life sentences in 1991, but only after they agreed not to sue for their wrongful arrest and imprisonment.  (CWC) (ISI)  [7/05]


Cook County, IL Alton Logan Jan 11, 1982 (South Side)

Alton Logan was convicted of murdering Lloyd Wickliffe, a security guard, during the robbery of a McDonald's restaurant at 11421 S. Halsted St. in Chicago.  Another security guard, Alvin Thompson, was wounded. The gunmen got no money, but stole the guards' handguns. Police arrested Logan after a tip and got three eyewitnesses to identify him. Logan, his mother, and brother all would later testify that he was at home asleep when the murder occurred.  While investigating another man, Andrew Wilson, for the unrelated murders of two policeman, police found the shotgun used in the McDonald's robbery.  Police never charged Wilson in the McDonald's robbery as there were only two perpetrators in the robbery and they had already built a case against Logan and a codefendant, Edgar Hope.

Hope later told Wilson's attorneys, Dale Coventry and Jamie Kunz, that Logan had nothing to do with the McDonald's shooting and that Wilson was the shooter.  When the attorneys asked their client if he was responsible for the McDonald's shooting, Wilson said, “Yep, that was me.”  Wilson's attorneys thought about speaking up to prevent Logan's conviction, but attorney-client confidentiality prohibited them.  Instead they signed an affidavit regarding Wilson's confession and sealed it.  Kunz said they prepared the document “so that if we were ever able to speak up, no one could say we were just making this up now.”  They later obtained Wilson's permission to reveal his confession following his death.

After Wilson died in Nov. 2007, the attorneys came forward with Wilson's confession to the crime.  In April 2008, Logan's conviction was vacated and charges against him were later dropped.  Logan has served 26 years in prison.  (Chicago Tribune) (CWC)  [5/08]


Cook County, IL Steve Shore Aug 10, 1982 (South Side)
Steve Shore was convicted of the murder of Garrison Hester, an off-duty security guard.  Hester was shot on Drexel Avenue in Chicago.  The Illinois Appellate Court affirmed the conviction by a two to one vote, but the dissenting justice, R. Eugene Pincham, called the prosecution case “ludicrous, farfetched, unreasonable, and unworthy of belief.”  Additional exculpatory evidence became known in the early 1990's because of a federal investigation into the El Rukn street gang.  Shore got an evidentiary hearing and was allowed to take the depositions of the El Rukn witnesses.  After the discovery process was complete, the prosecution agreed to drop charges and free Shore, but only if he accepted an Alford plea, which was an acceptance of charges for time served.  Shore accepted the offer and was freed in 1996.  (CWC)  (People v. Shore) (Shore v. Warden)  [12/05]


Cook County, IL Anthony Porter Aug 15, 1982 (South Side)
Anthony Porter was convicted of murdering Jerry Hilliard, 18, and Marilyn Green, 19.  The state's key witness, William Taylor, testified that he saw Porter, about five hundred feet away, fire his pistol in the dark of night.  He also said that Porter, who is right-handed, used his left hand to fire five fatal shots.  Journalism students investigated and re-enacted the crime but from Taylor's position they could not see the face of the shooter in broad daylight.  Taylor later admitted his testimony was false and said police had pressured him to name Porter as the shooter.  Another man, Alstory Simon, later admitted to the killings after his estranged wife told two students that she had been present at the shootings.  She said she did not know Porter, but that he most certainly had nothing to do with the crime.  Porter, whose IQ measured between 51 and 75, was released after spending 17 years on death row.  (JD02) (CWC) (Profiles of Injustice)  [6/05]


Cook County, IL Ronnie Bullock Mar 18, 1983 (South Side)
Ronnie Bullock was convicted of raping a nine-year-old girl.  Bullock was identified by the victim and lived in the area where the rape occurred.  DNA tests exonerated him in 1994.  (IP) (CWC) (CBJ)  [9/06]


Cook County, IL Brown & Houston June 18, 1983
Robert Brown and Elton Houston were convicted of the murder of Ronnie Bell after being identified by some eyewitnesses.  The murder was presumed to be gang related.  In 1985, Anthony Sumner, an inmate cooperating with a federal probe of the El Rukn street gang identified the actual men involved in the murder as J. L. Houston (Elton's brother), Earl Hawkins, and Derrick Kees.  At his trials Elton maintained that he was being mistaken by the identifying witnesses for his brother, J. L.  It was undisputed that J. L. owned the car involved in the shootings, and the murder weapons were found in the car.  Also it was maintained that J. L. was known to the police as an El Rukn hit man, and Elton was not an El Rukn.  Two of the three actual men confessed.  Brown and Houston were exonerated and released in 1989.  (CWC)  [12/05]


Cook County, IL Leroy Orange Jan 11, 1984
Leroy Orange was sentenced to death for the murder of Renee Coleman, 27, Michelle Jointer, 30, Ricardo Pedro, 25, and Coleman's 10-year-old son, Tony.  Orange confessed to the crimes after being subjected to beatings, suffocation, and electroshock by Lt. John Burge and other officers at the Chicago Area Two police station.  Orange subsequently told everyone he came in contact with that he had been tortured:  his cellmate, a physician, relatives and friends who visited him, his public defender, and the arraignment judge.  Orange's half brother, Leonard Kidd, implicated Orange in the murders while being tortured at Area 2.  However, Kidd testified for Orange against his attorney's advice admitting that he alone committed the murders without Orange's participation or knowledge.  Governor Ryan pardoned Orange on Jan. 10, 2003.  (CWC)  [8/05]


Cook County, IL Stanley Howard May 20, 1984 (South Side)

Stanley Howard was sentenced to death for the murder of Oliver Ridgell.  Ridgell was shot and killed as he and Tecora Mullen sat in Ridgell's car. The car was parked in front of an apartment building at 1343 W. 92nd St., around the corner from Mullen's home.  Ridgell and Mullen both were married, but they had been having an affair for some time.  Mullen told police she would be able to identify the killer, but after she looked at police books with photographs of suspects she was unable to say any of them resembled Ridgell's killer. She was also unable to help a police sketch artist draw a composite of the perpetrator.

Six months later, Howard, who had no known acquaintance with either Ridgell or Mullen, confessed to the murder after he said it was beaten out of him by Chicago Area Two detectives.  Howard had been taken to hospitals before and after his confession.  Medical records showed that he had new injuries including bruises on his left leg that matched his description of police mistreatment.  Nevertheless the judge refused to bar his confession at trial.

According to Howard's confession, he fired three shots at Ridgell.  Most tenants in the apartment buildings near the scene of the murder were still asleep when it occurred.  Those that heard anything, heard only one shot.  One tenant heard a man say,  “I told you, I would get you.”  Another heard a woman say, “Don't hurt him. Just take me home.”  The tenants' statements were withheld at trial.  In a lineup, Mullen tentatively identified Howard, saying he “looked like” Ridgell's killer.  However, at trial Mullen was positive Howard was the killer.  She also said that her lineup identification had been positive.  In a later interview, when asked about her identification, Mullen said she was in an alcoholic haze in the years before and after the murder.  “I drank a fifth of liquor every day for 10 years. I couldn't hardly remember anything.”

In 1991, the Illinois Supreme Court found that a trial error had occurred, but ruled it harmless because “the evidence of the defendant's guilt was overwhelming.”  In 2003, Gov. Ryan disagreed and granted Howard a pardon based on innocence.  (CWC) (Chicago Tribune) [8/08]


Cook County, IL LaVale Burt Sept 19, 1985
LaVale Burt, 19, confessed to the shooting murder of two-year-old Charles Gregory after a prolonged interrogation by Chicago police.  Police discovered gunpowder residue on the hands of the victim's mother.  The mother, who initially denied knowing anything about the shooting, claimed Burt shot at two girls, missed them, and hit her son.  Both girls initially denied the story, but one of them finally said the mother's story was true.  The girls' brother had been slightly wounded earlier in the day in a suspected gang related shooting.  Police theorized that Burt had been involved in that shooting and had shot at the girls to discourage them from linking him to that crime.  Burt confessed to that theory of the crime.  After Burt was convicted and was awaiting sentencing, the victim's grandmother contacted the judge who tried Burt's case.  She said she found a pistol in her daughter's possession that she suspected had caused her grandson's death.  The daughter acknowledged her son's death had been accidental and the judge vacated Burt's conviction.  (CWC)  [12/05]


Cook County, IL Ronald Jones Mar 10, 1985 (South Side)
Ronald Jones confessed to the rape and murder of a Chicago woman after a lengthy interrogation during which police beat him.  According to Jones, Detective Steven Hood struck him in the head three or four times with a black object about six inches long before Detective John Markham said, “Don't hit him like this because he will bruise,” and proceeded to punch Jones repeatedly in the stomach.  At trial, a witness also identified him.  Jones was convicted and sentenced to death.  DNA tests exonerated him after eight years of imprisonment.  (IP) (CWC)  [1/06]


Cook County, IL Steven Smith June 30, 1985 (South Side)

Steven Smith was sentenced to death for the murder of Virdeen Willis Jr., who was shot outside a tavern.  Willis was an assistant warden at the Pontiac Correctional Center.  Smith was convicted due to the testimony of Debrah Caraway, which was dubious for several reasons.  First, Caraway had been smoking crack cocaine.  Second, she claimed Willis was alone when the killer stepped out of shadows and fired the fatal shot, but two other witnesses said they were standing beside Willis when he was murdered.  Third, Caraway's boyfriend, Pervis (Pepper) Bell, was an alternative suspect in the murder.  Finally, Caraway, according to her account, was across the street when the crime occurred and, while she positively identified Smith, the two persons who were standing beside Willis were within only two or three feet of the killer and could not identify Smith.

In 1999, the Illinois Supreme Court threw out the conviction due to insufficient evidence and it barred a retrial.  It ruled that Caraway's testimony was less reliable than the contradictory testimony of the other witnesses.  Leonard Cavise, a DePaul University law professor, said he believes the state's evidence in the case was so weak that the prosecution should not have even brought charges against Smith, much less pursued the death penalty.  (CWC)  [1/06]


Cook County, IL Reynolds & Wardell May 3, 1986
Donald Reynolds and Billy Wardell were convicted of the rape of a University of Chicago student and the attempted rape of another student.  The men were each sentenced to 55 years imprisonment, but DNA tests later exonerated them.  Both men filed suits against Pamela Fish, a crime laboratory analyst, alleging she testified falsely against them.  (IP1) (IP2) (CWC)  [7/05]


Cook County, IL Aaron Patterson Apr 1986
Aaron Patterson was sentenced to death for the murders of Vincent and Rafaela Sanchez, a South Chicago couple who fenced goods for neighborhood thieves.  Vincent, 73, and Rafaela, 62, were found stabbed to death on April 19, 1986 inside their ransacked home at 8849 South Burley Avenue.  Patterson confessed to the murders after being tortured.  Following his conviction, state's witness and teenager Marva Hall, swore in an affidavit that prosecutors pressured her into implicating Patterson.  Patterson was released from Death Row in 2003 after the Illinois governor found that he was “wrongfully prosecuted.”  (CWC) (CCADP)  [9/05]


Cook County, IL Roscetti Four Oct 18, 1986 (Chicago)

Marcellius Bradford, 17, Calvin Ollins, 14, Larry Ollins, 16, and Omar Saunders, 18, were accused and convicted of the kidnapping, rape, and murder of 23-year-old Rush University medical student Lori Roscetti.  Bradford testified against the others in exchange for a 12-year sentence.  A friend of Bradford provided additional testimony including a confession by Saunders.  Bradford later recanted his statements, saying police coerced him into falsely confessing and that he did so to avoid a life sentence.

Crime lab analyst Pamela Fish testified that semen found on the victim's body could have belonged to the Ollinses, but a recent examination of her notes by a DNA expert showed that none of the four boy's blood types matched the crime scene samples.  In 2001, DNA tests exonerated all four and all were released except Bradford who was initially released after 6 1/2 years but was reincarcerated on an unrelated charge.  The case was profiled on a This American Life episode entitled “Perfect Evidence.”  The defendants were awarded $120,000 from the State of Illinois in 2003.  Calvin Ollins was additionally awarded $1.5 million from the City of Chicago in 2003.  (CWC) (IP1) (IP2) (IP3) (IP4)  [6/05]


Cook County, IL Madison Hobley Jan 6, 1987 (Chicago)

A fire broke out in Madison Hobley's apartment building early in the morning, which killed his wife, infant son, and five other people.  Hobley escaped wearing only underwear.  Later in the day, detectives picked him up and tortured him in an attempt to extract a confession that he started the fire.  When torture did not work, four detectives asserted that Hobley made a confession.  No record of this confession existed.  One detective claimed to have made notes but threw them away after something spilled on them.

The prosecution claimed that Hobley had bought $1 worth of gasoline, which he used to start the fire.  They produced a gasoline can allegedly found at the fire scene, but a defense expert pointed out that it showed no exposure to the high heat of the fire, as its plastic cap was undamaged.  After trial, the defense learned that a second gasoline can was found at the fire scene but police destroyed it after the defense issued a subpoena for it.

In addition, post-conviction affidavits of jurors stated that non-jurors intimidated some of them while they were sequestered at a hotel, and that they were prejudiced by the acts of the jury foreperson, a police officer, who believed Hobley was guilty.  The affidavits also stated that jurors brought newspapers with articles about the case into the jury room and that they repeatedly violated the trial court's sequestration.  In 2003, Gov. George Ryan granted Hobley a pardon based on innocence.  (CWC)  [9/05]


Cook County, IL Miguel Castillo May 1988
Miguel Castillo was convicted of murdering Rene Chinea, a 50-year-old Cuban immigrant.  Chinea's decomposing body was found in Castillo's apartment on May 18.  Castillo had been in jail until May 11.  Castillo was cleared in 2001 when a re-examination of medical evidence showed that Chinea died no later than May 9.  Castillo was awarded $1.2 million from the City of Chicago and was eligible for $160,000 from the State of Illinois.  (CWC)  [7/05]


Cook County, IL David Dowaliby Sept 10, 1988 (Midlothian)

David Dowaliby was convicted of murdering his 7-year-old stepdaughter, Jaclyn.  Police initially assumed that the window, through which an intruder had allegedly entered to abduct Jaclyn, had been broken from the inside of their home.  There was more broken glass on the outside than on the inside but forensic analysis established that it had been broken from the outside.  During the investigation, Dowaliby and his wife, Cynthia, had followed police advice not to talk to the press, but such refusal had made them appear guilty.

At trial, for which both Dowaliby and his wife were charged with first-degree murder, the prosecution presented a witness, with a history of mental illness, who stated that he saw someone with a nose structure resembling Dowaliby on the night the victim had disappeared and near where her body was found five days later.  This witness, Everett Mann, made this identification from an unlighted parking lot 75 yards away on a moonless night.  The prosecution also presented 17 gruesome autopsy photos that are disallowed in many jurisdictions because they serve to prejudice a jury.  The trial judge gave Dowaliby's wife a directed verdict of acquittal, but the jury convicted Dowaliby.

Afterwards, in an interview, the jury forewoman said that fist marks on the door of a bedroom were critical to the jury's decision to convict Dowaliby.  These marks appeared in one of the evidence photos, but were never mentioned by either side.  The jury concluded from these marks that Dowaliby had a terrible temper.  In fact, they had no bearing on the case, as they had been present years earlier, before the Dowalibys had moved into their home.  The jury forewoman also said, that if given the chance, the jury would have convicted Dowalibly's wife as well.

An appeals court reversed Dowaliby's conviction in 1991, on the grounds of insufficient evidence.  The case came to a legal end in 1992 when the Illinois Supreme Court declined to hear an appeal by the prosecution.  The case is the subject of a book, Gone in the Night: The Dowaliby Family's Encounter With Murder and the Law by Protess and Warden (1993).  (CWC) (American Justice)  [12/06]


Cook County, IL Algie Crivens 1989
Algie Crivens was convicted of murdering Cornelius “Corndog” Lyons in a Jewel grocery store parking lot.  Two eyewitnesses identified Crivens.  A prison inmate, who heard another man, Marcus Williams, confess to the crime, was not allowed to testify at Lyons's trial.  Later another witness came forward who had seen Williams shoot Lyons.  State courts would not provide relief, but a Federal Court intervened.  On retrial, Crivens won a directed verdict of acquittal.  Gov. Ryan also pardoned Crivens, qualifying him for automatic compensation for wrongful imprisonment.  (CWC)  [7/05]


Cook County, IL John Willis 1989-90
John Willis was charged with committing robberies and rapes.  Prosecution Lab Technician Pamela Fish testified that forensic tests were inconclusive when they excluded him as the perpetrator.  Willis was convicted and sentenced to 100 years of imprisonment.  Later when a man named Dennis McGruder was convicted of committing rapes in the same location and with the same modus operendi, Willis was barred from using that evidence to appeal his conviction.  DNA tests exonerated Willis in 1999 and implicated McGruder as the perpetrator of Willis's alleged rapes.  (IP)  [5/05]


Cook County, IL Steven Manning May 14, 1990
Steven Manning was convicted of a 1984 kidnapping in Clay County, Missouri and the 1990 murder of trucking company owner Jimmy Pellegrino in Illinois.  The convictions were based on testimony of jailhouse informants.  Manning, a former Chicago cop, had been an FBI informant, but when he no longer wanted to work for his FBI handlers, Robert Buchan and Gary Miller, he sued them for harassment.  They retaliated by framing him for the crimes, for which he was sentenced to death.  Manning was released in 2004 and awarded $6,581,000 in Jan. 2005 after a jury agreed that he had been framed.  The 1984 kidnapping apparently never happened, as the kidnapped drug dealers did not report the crime for 6 years.  The FBI refuses to criminally charge Buchan and Miller for their actions.  (CWC) (Chicago Tribune) (Justice: Denied)  [9/05]


Cook County, IL Melvin Bentley Aug 5, 1990 (Ford Heights)
Melvin Bentley was convicted of murdering Leonard Jamison.  The murder occurred across the street from the Ford Heights police station in the parking lot of a tavern that functioned as an open-air drug market.  Two witnesses who had testified against Bentley later stated that they had been told to falsely implicate Bentley by the lead investigator, who had since been convicted of bribery and sent to federal prison.  The state released Bentley in 2000 in exchange for his agreement not to seek a new trial.  (CWC) (Google)  [7/05]


Cook County, IL Richard Johnson Sept 20, 1990
Richard Johnson was convicted of rape and robbery.  He was identified from police photos and featured on America's Most Wanted.  The victim was a graduate student at the University of Chicago.  Prior to trial, tests showed that the semen recovered from a victim belonged to a man who had a different blood type than Johnson's.  However, Johnson's public defender did not bring up this evidence at trial.  In 1996, after DNA tests reconfirmed that Johnson was not the assailant, his conviction was vacated and charges were dismissed.  (CWC) (IP) (CM)  [4/09]


Cook County, IL Young, Hill, & Williams Oct 14, 1990 (South Side)
Dan Young, Jr. and Harold Hill were convicted of killing Kathy Morgan, 39, whose body was found by firefighters sent to extinguish a blaze.  Peter Williams was also charged but charges were dropped after police learned Williams was in jail at the time of the murder.  Hill who was 16 was first arrested on unrelated charges.  Chicago detectives Kenneth Boudreau and John Halloran obtained a confession from him saying that he, Young, and Williams all took part in the crime.  Young, who has a 56 IQ, was arrested and confessed after he says police beat him.  Williams was the last to be arrested.  He gave the most detailed confession, but he later said he was handcuffed to a radiator for hours and urinated on himself because he was not allowed to use a bathroom.  The conviction and charges against Young and Hill were dropped in 2005 after bite mark trial testimony was discredited and DNA tests failed to implicate the two.  [9/05]


Cook County, IL Xavier Catron Sept 19, 1992 (South Side)
Xavier Catron was convicted of murdering 16-year-old Kendrick Thomas.  The conviction was based on the testimony of three eyewitnesses who later swore under oath that Chicago police had coerced them to falsely identify Catron.  Catron eventually won a new trial and charges against him were dropped in 2000.  (CWC)  [7/05]


Cook County, IL Marlon Pendleton Oct 3, 1992 (South Side)
Marlon Pendleton was convicted of raping and robbing a woman who was abducted as she walked to work near 74th St. and Maryland Ave.  The victim estimated her attacker weighed 170 lbs., about 15 lbs. less than herself and said that if he had not been armed, “I'd kick his butt.”  Pendleton weighed 135 lbs., but the victim identified him in a suggestive lineup.  She also identified him in court, saying, “I looked him in his face and ... at that point his face was etched in my mind.”  Following his conviction, Pendleton demanded that DNA tests be performed on the evidence, but Chicago police crime lab analyst Pamela Fish said that there was insufficient evidence to be tested, according to her report.  Brian Wraxall, the expert who eventually conducted a test in 2006, said that he believes that there was enough material at the time.  The test exonerated Pendleton, and shortly thereafter the state's attorney's office began reviewing his case.  (Chicago Tribune) (IP)  [12/06]


Cook County, IL Daniel Taylor Nov 16, 1992 (Chicago)

Daniel Taylor was convicted of the murders of Jeffrey Lassiter and Sharon Haugabook.  The victims were residents of a second-floor apartment at 910 W. Agatite Ave.  Under police interrogation, the then 17-year-old Taylor confessed to the crime.  According to the confession, Taylor and three fellow gang members entered the victims' apartment to rob them while four additional gang members waited outside as lookouts.

Just before Taylor was to be formally charged with the murders, he protested that he could not have committed the crimes because he had been in police custody when they occurred.  When police checked their records, they found that Taylor was arrested at 6:45 p.m. on the night of the murders.  The murders occurred at 8:43 p.m.  A copy of Taylor's bond slip showed he was not released from the Town Hall District lockup until 10 p.m.

Nevertheless, police still charged Taylor with the murders.  To corroborate his confession, they found a witness, Adrian Grimes, a drug dealer and a rival gang member, who, at trial, testified that he saw Taylor at 7:30 p.m. in Clarendon Park.  Two police officers, Michael Berti and Sean Glinski, also testified that they saw Taylor at 9:30 p.m. when they emerged from an apartment half a block from the murder scene.  The jury chose to believe Taylor's confession over police records.  Taylor was sentenced to life in prison.

Following Taylor's conviction, Grimes said he lied at the request of detectives and to receive leniency on a narcotics charge.  The officers who said they saw Taylor at 9:30 p.m. testified they dropped him off at a DCFS shelter at 10 p.m.  However DCFS records show that he did not arrive there until 3 a.m.  In addition, four months before the officers' report, a judge had ordered Officer Berti off the witness stand in an unrelated case and stated, “I don't believe a thing he says. He goes down in my book as a liar.”

Besides Taylor, seven of his fellow gang members were charged with the murders.  No physical evidence connected any of them to the crime.  While in police custody all seven confessed to the crime and each said Taylor was with them.  Four of them were convicted of the crime, one was acquitted, and charges against the other two were dropped after their confessions were thrown out.  (Chicago Tribune)  [7/08]


Cook County, IL Lafonso Rollins Jan 9, 1993
Lafonso Rollins was convicted of raping an elderly Chicago woman.  He initially confessed in writing because it was the only way to stop being struck and threatened by the detectives questioning him.  He immediately recanted his confession.  DNA tests exonerated him in 2004 and Gov. Blagojevich pardoned in him 2005.  In 2006, Rollins was awarded $9 million for his 11 1/2 years of wrongful imprisonment.  (IP) (IDOCS) (JD31 p9)  [9/06]


Cook County, IL Dana Holland Feb 1993 (South Side)
Dana Holland was convicted of rape and attempted murder because of false witness ID and also because of false testimony by forensic analyst Pamela Fish that the recovered semen sample was too small to test for DNA.  DNA tests exonerated Holland in 2003.  (CWC) (Chicago Tribune) (IP)  [7/05]


Cook County, IL Dean Cage Nov 14, 1994

Dean Cage was convicted of sexually assaulting a 15-year-old girl.  The assault occurred on Nov. 14, 1994, in an alley in the rear basement stairwell of a building in the 7000 block of South Wabash Avenue.  The victim gave a description of her assailant from which a computer-generated composite sketch was made.  After the sketch was publicized, police received an anonymous tip that a man who worked at a certain meat packing plant resembled the sketch.  Cage worked at the plant, but had no criminal record and did not closely resemble the sketch.

In 2004 Cage filed a handwritten petition of habeas corpus in federal court. He asserted he was innocent because the girl had contracted venereal diseases from her assailant, and tests showed Cage did not have any venereal diseases. Cage's petition was rejected.  Nevertheless he was arrested and identified by the victim in a live lineup.  In 2008 DNA tests exonerated Cage of the crime.  (CWC) (FJDB)  [6/08]


Cook County, IL Robert Wilson Feb 28, 1997

Robert Wilson was convicted of the attempted murder of June Siler.  While waiting at a bus station, a man, for no apparent reason, slashed Siler's throat and face with a box cutter.  Siler identified Wilson as her assailant from suggestive police photo lineups, although, at one point, she complained that Wilson was too old to be her assailant.  After 30 hours in custody, Wilson signed a confession.  He soon recanted the confession and said he signed it because he was sick, police had refused his requests for his heart medicine, and he was scared police would beat him.  He said a detective had slapped him.

Wilson's confession did not match the facts of the crime.  The confession stated Wilson assaulted Siler because he was smoking a cigar and he became angry when she had complained of the smoke and said he would get cancer.  Siler said later her assailant was not smoking a cigar, and there was no discussion about smoking or cancer. “I smoke,” she said. “I wouldn't have said anything like that.”

Siler always had anxiety about whether she helped to convict the right person.  Later after Wilson got a new trial, she learned another suspect had been wearing black Velcro shoes that her assailant had been wearing.  Siler is now convinced that Wilson was not her assailant and blames police for the mix-up.  (Chicago Tribune) (CWC)  [3/07]


Cook County, IL Miranda Five July 17, 1997 (Logan Square)
Omar Aguirre, Robert Gayol, Luis Ortiz, Duarte Santos, and Ronnie Gamboa were charged with the murder of 56-year-old furniture dealer, Sindulfo Miranda.  Miranda was also tortured before he died with scissors and a broomstick.  The first four were convicted because of eyewitness perjury and a coerced confession.  Gamboa was acquitted.  In 2002, a federal investigation later revealed that the crime was one of a series of crimes committed by the Carmen Brothers Crew street gang.  The four were exonerated of the crime.  In a 2006, three of the men were awarded $6.74 million.  (CWC) (JD31 p6)  [9/06]